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Introduction For the better part of the 20th century, the study of crime had characteristically acquired American flavor. This was as a result of increased scholarly participation in the development of many popular criminological theories. Although, the study of crime did not originate in the United States, this continued concern by various scholars and researchers put United States among the top nations in issues related to study of crime (Hodge, 2009). With the increase in population, the number of crimes has also been on the increase. Nevertheless, the US criminal justice system has had difficult times trying to instill measures of dealing with crime. The law enforcement and intelligence agencies are faced with numerous challenges as they try to cooperate with each other in the fight against crime. Several federal, state and local laws and policing trends have changed with time due to the nature of demographic and crime changes. In order to have a clear insight of why the criminal justice system changes its operations, and why the nature of crimes changes, the following section, will focus on criminological theories that explain crimes and why they happen. Traditional criminological theories Cultural deviance theory According to the theory of cultural deviance theory, persons commit crimes because they possess internalized procriminal values (Lilly, Ball &. Cullen, 2011). Today, critical criminologists dedicate their attention to various themes and concept of crime. Some of the major areas of concern….
The specific values, which these theorists refer to, have been argued to range from cultural emphases on toughness, excitement, and trouble to sub cultural preferences for risk taking. In a more elaborate way, cultural deviance theory argues that persons commit a crime because their cultures demand them to do so or because they have learned that crime is the correct thing to do (Lilly, Ball &. Cullen, 2011). It is also argued that lower-class culture comprises of certain styles of life acquired and learned in childhood, which are later passed on to adulthood and collectively becomes a heritage. Strain theory This theory argues that some social structures exert a specific pressure on some persons in the society to engage in non-conformist rather than conformist conduct (Agnew, Brezina Wright &. Cullen, 2002). The theory contends that strain is not just as a result of failing to achieve goals imposed by the society, but also encompasses many issues, as well. For example, failure by people to achieve middle-class success may lead to strain among people climbing the social ladder. Consequently, it immerges that some groups in these poor neighborhood tends to resort to violence, excitement, risk taking, and gratification among others (Agnew, Brezina Wright &. Cullen, 2002). However, this theory asserts that it is personality traits within individuals that provoke strain, and these traits ends up forcing people to resort to delinquency and crime as a way of relieving tension resulting from strain.